(1) What is a compiler?
Because a computer can only understand machine language and humans wish to write in high level languages high level languages have to be re-written (translated) into machine language at some point. This is done by special programs called compilers, interpreters, or assemblers that are built into the various programming applications.
C++ is designed to be a compiled language, meaning that it is generally translated into machine language that can be understood directly by the system, making the generated program highly efficient. For that, a set of tools are needed, known as the development toolchain, whose core are a compiler and its linker
(2) Console programs
Console programs are programs that use text to communicate with the user and the environment, such as printing text to the screen or reading input from a keyboard