Listen to me, please.
You’re like me, a Homo sapiens.
A wise human.
Life, a miracle in the universe,
appeared around four billion years ago,
and we humans only 200,000 years ago.
Yet we have succeeded in disrupting the balance…
that is so essential to life on Earth.
Listen carefully to this extraordinary story, which is yours,
and decide what you want to do with it.
These are traces of our origins.
At the beginning, our planet was no more than a chaos of fire,
formed in the wake of its star, the sun.
A cloud of agglutinated dust particles,
similar to so many similar clusters in the universe.
Yet this was where the miracle of life occurred.
Today, life- our life-
is just a link in a chain of innumerable living beings…
that have succeeded one another on Earth over nearly four billion years.
And even today, new volcanoes continue to sculpt our landscapes.
They offer a glimpse of what our Earth was like at its birth
molten rock surging from the depths,
blistering or spreading in a thin crust,
before fabling dormant for a time.
These wreaths of smoke curling from the bowels of the Earth…
bear witness to the Earth’s original atmosphere.
An atmosphere devoid of oxygen.
A dense atmosphere, thick with water vapor,full of carbon dioxide.
But the Earth had an exceptional future, offered to it by water.
At the right distance from the sun— not too far, not too near
the Earth was able to conserve water in liquid form.
Water vapor condensed and fell in torrential downpours on Earth,
and rivers appeared.
The rivers shaped the surface of the Earth,
cutting their channels,
furrowing out valleys.
They ran toward the lowest places on the globe to form the oceans.
They tore minerals from the rocks,
and gradually the freshwater of the oceans…
became heavy with salt.
Water is a vital liquid.
It irrigated these sterile expanses.
The paths it traced are like the veins of a body,
the branches of a tree, the vessels of the sap that it brought to the Earth.
Nearly four billion years later,
- somewhere on Earth can still be found these works of art,
- left by the volcanoes’ ash, mixed with water from Iceland’s glaciers. 就是它们，物质和水
There they are- matter and water, 水和物质
water and matter-
- soft and hard combined, the crucial alliance shared by every life-form on our planet.
- Minerals and metals are even older than the Earth. 它们是星尘
They are stardust. 它们让地球五彩斑斓
They provide the Earth’s colors. 红色是铁，黑色是碳
Red from iron, black from carbon, 蓝色是铜，黄色则是硫
blue from copper, yellow from sulfur.
- Where do we come from? 生命火花从哪里迸发？
Where did life first spark into being?
- A miracle of time,
地球上的温泉仍然有原始的生命存活 62. primitive life-forms still exist in the globe’s hot springs. 它们赋予温泉颜色
- They give them their colors. 它们叫做“古细菌”
They’re called archaeobacteria. 它们都依靠地球热能生存
They all feed off the Earth’s heat 除了蓝细菌，或是蓝绿藻以外
all except the cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae.
只有它们可以向着太阳来吸取其能量 67. They alone have the capacity to turn to the sun to capture its energy. 它们是古今所有植种的最重要的祖先 68. They are a vital ancestor of all yesterday’s and today’s plant species. 这些微小的细菌
- These tiny bacteria… 及其数以亿计的后代
and their billions of descendants… 改变了地球的命运
changed the destiny of our planet. 是它们改造了地球的大气层
They transformed its atmosphere. 毒害大气层的碳去了哪里？
What happened to the carbon that poisoned the atmosphere?
- It’s still here, imprisoned in the Earth’s crust.
- We can read this chapter of the Earth’s history…
卡罗拉多大峡谷的峭壁是最好的选择 76. nowhere better than on the walls of Colorado’s Grand Canyon.
- They reveal nearby two billion years of the Earth’s history.
大峡谷曾经是一个聚居着微生物的海洋 78. Once upon a time, the Grand Canyon was a sea inhabited by microorganisms.
它们汲取从大气层溶解到海洋里的碳 79. They grew their shells by tapping into carbon from the atmosphere… 并长出外壳
- dissolved in the ocean. 它们死后
When they died, the shells sank…
- and accumulated on the sealed. 这些地层就是它们无数的外壳构成的 83. These strata are the product of those billions and billions of shells. 因为有了它们，碳从大气层中排出
Thanks to them, the carbon drained from the atmosphere, 其他生物才能得以发展
and other life-forms could develop. 生命改变了大气层
It is life that altered the 没有东西是自给自足的
Nothing is self-sufficient. 水和空气不可分割
Water and air are inseparable, 为了地球上的生命而结合
united in life and for our life on Earth. 于是，形成于海洋上的云给陆地带来降雨
Thus, clouds form over the oceans and bring rain to the landmasses, 河流再将水带回海洋
whose rivers carry water back to the oceans. 它们的枝叶不疾不徐地向着太阳生长 138. They grow unhurriedly toward the sun that nourishes their foliage. 它们从微小的古细菌继承了
They have inherited from those minuscule cyanobacteria… 吸收光线能量的能力
the power to capture light’s energy. 它们储存并利用此能量
They store it and feed off it, 并使其变成木材和树叶
turning it into wood and leaves, atmosphere.
- Plant life fed off the sun’s energy, 这能量使植物分离水分子
which enabled it to break apart the water molecule… 并释放出来氧气
and take the oxygen. 空气因而充满氧气
And oxygen filled the air. 地球的水不断更新循环
The Earth’s water cycle is a process of constant renewal. 瀑布，水蒸气，
Waterfalls, water vapor, 云、雨、泉
clouds, rain, springs, 河流、海洋、冰川
rivers, seas, oceans, glaciers. 这个循环从未间断
The cycle is never broken. 地球的水量恒久不变
There’s always the same quantity of water on Earth.
- All the successive species on Earth have drunk the same water. 水是令人惊叹的物质
The astonishing matter that is water.
- One of the most unstable of all. 它可以是液态的流水
It takes a liquid form as running water,
- gaseous as vapor… 或是固态的冰
or solid as ice.
- In Siberia, the frozen surfaces of the lakes in winter…
- contain the traces of the forces that water deploys when it freezes. 冰比水轻因而浮于水面
Lighter than water, the ice floats, 不会沉到湖底
rather than sinking to the bottom. 它形成御寒的保护罩
It forms a protective mantle against the cold,
- under which life can go on. 生命的引擎连锁结合
The engine of life is linkage. 一切都连结起来
Everything is linked. 分享就是一切
Sharing is everything.
从云层窥望的大片绿色是空气中的氧气 117. The green expanse peeking through the clouds is the source of oxygen in the air. 七成氧气来自海藻
- Seventy percent of this gas, without which our lungs cannot function, 这些海藻给海洋表面染上了颜色
comes from the algae that tint the surface of the oceans. 地球要依赖
Our Earth relies on a balance… 万物各司其职
in which every being has a role to play…
- and exists only through the existence of another being.
- A subtle, fragile harmony that is easily shattered.
- Thus, corals are born from the marriage of algae and shells. 澳大利亚沿海的大堡礁
The Great Barrier Reef, Off the coast of Australia,
- stretches over 350,000 square kilometers…
- and is home to 1,500 species of fish, 四千种软体动物
4,000 species of mollusks… 和四百种珊瑚
and 400 species of coral.
每个海洋的生态平衡都依靠这些珊瑚 130. The equilibrium of every ocean depends on these corals. 地球计算时间以十亿年计
- The Earth counts time in billions of years.
- It took more than four billion years for it to make trees. 在物种的链条中
In the chain of species, 树木是至高无上的
trees are a pinnacle, 是完美的活的雕塑
a perfect living sculpture. 它们蔑视地心吸力
Trees defy gravity.
- They are the only natural element in perpetual movement toward the sky.
- which then decompose into a mixture of water, 和生命物质的混合体
mineral, vegetable and living matter. 就这样
And so, gradually,
- the soils that are indispensable to life are formed.
- Soils are the factory of biodiversity.
- They are a world of incessant activity…
- where microorganisms feed, dig, aerate and transform.
- They make the humus, the fertile layer to which all life on land is linked. 地球上的生命我们知道什么？
What do we know about life on Earth?
- How many species are we aware of?
- A 10th of them? A hundredth perhaps?
- What do we know about the bonds that link them? 地球是个奇迹
The Earth is a miracle. 生命仍是个谜
Life remains a mystery. 动物的家族得以形成
Families of animals form, 至今仍存的习惯和仪式使它们凝聚
united by customs and rituals that survive today. 有些适应了环境
Some adapt to the nature of their pasture,
- and their pasture adapts to them. 双方都受益
And both gain.
动物得到食物，而树木能够开花结果 162. The animal sates its hunger, and the tree can blossom again. 在地球上生命的伟大的历险中
- In the great adventure of life on Earth,
- every species has a role to play, 各有其位
every species has its place. 没有多余或有害
None is futile or harmful. 它们互相抵消
They all balance out. 然后你们
And that’s where you, 这些聪明的人类
Homo sapiens- “wise human’- 进入剧情
enter the story. 这是人类历史的一大步
It was a considerable leap in human history.
- The farmer becomes a craftsman, trader or peddler.
- Why towns? Because they allowed humans to defend themselves more easily.
- They became social beings, 在一起分享他们的知识和手艺
meeting and sharing knowledge and crafts,
- blending their similarities and 219. What the Earth gives the farmer, the city dweller buys, sells or barters. 商品交易
Goods change hands, 伴随思想交流
along with ideas.
人类的天份在于经常洞悉自已的弱点 222. Humanity’s genius is to have always had a sense of its weakness. 他们很想扩张领土
- You benefit from a fabulous… 地球四十亿年的遗产
four-billion-year-old legacy bequeathed by the Earth. 你们只有二十万年历史
You’re only 200,000 years old, 但你们已经改变了世界的面貌
but you have changed the face of the world. 尽管你们脆弱
Despite your vulnerability, 但你们占据了所有的栖息地
you have taken possession of every habitat…
征服了所有土地 177. and conquered swaths of territory…
- like no other species before you. 经过十八万年的游牧岁月
After180,000 nomadic years, 气候变得温和，人类开始定居下来
and thanks to a more clement climate, humans settled down. 他们不再依靠打猎为生
They no longer depended on hunting for survival. 他们定居于充满渔猎
They chose to live in wet environments…
- that abounded in fish, game and wild plants.
- There, where land, water and life combine.
- Human genius inspired them to build canoes,
- an invention that opened up new horizons…
人类变成了航海家 187. and turned humans into navigators.
- Even today, the majority of humankind…
- lives on the continents’ coastlines… 或是河边和湖畔
or the banks of rivers and lakes. 最初的城镇出现在6000多年前
The first towns grew up less than 600 years ago.
- In a word, they became civilized. 但他们可用的能量只是双臂
But the only energy at their disposal was provided by nature… 和大自然赋予的东西
and the strength of their bodies. 这是人类数千年来的故事
It was the story of humankind for thousands of years. 也是现今四分之一人类
It still is for one person in four- 即十五亿人的故事
over one and a half billion human beings-
比富裕国家人口的总和还多 203. more than the combined population of all the wealthy nations. 他们只从地球获取必须的用品
- Taking from the Earth only the strictly necessary.
- For a long time, the relationship between humans and the planet… 平衡对等
was evenly balanced.
- For a long time, the economy seemed like a natural and equitable alliance.
但人类寿命短暂，艰苦劳动大行其道 208. But life expectancy is short, and hard labor takes its toll.
- The uncertainties of nature weigh on daily life. 教育是罕有特权
Education is a rare privilege. 子女是家庭唯一资产
Children are a family’s only asset, 每双手
as long as every extra pair of hands… 对家庭的生存都要作出贡献
is a necessary contribution to its subsistence.
- The Earth feeds people, clothes them…
- and provides for their daily needs. 一切来自地球
Everything comes from the Earth. 城镇改变人类本质和命运
Towns change humanity’s nature, as well as its destiny.
Humans tried to extend the frontiers of their territory, 但明白自身局限
but they knew their limits. 大自然不曾赋予他们的能量和气力
The physical energy and strength with which nature had not endowed them…
- was found in the animals they domesticated to serve them. 空着肚子怎去征服世界？
But how can you conquer the world on an empty stomach? 农业的发明
The invention of agriculture… 彻底改变了到处觅食的野兽本质
transformed the future of the wild animals scavenging for food… 成为真正的人
that were humankind. 农业改写了人类历史
Agriculture turned their history on end.
- Agriculture was their first great revolution.
- Developed barely 8,000 to 10,000 years ago,
- it changed their relationship to nature.
它终结了人类不稳定的狩猎和采集时代 235. It brought an end to the uncertainty of hunting and gathering. 第一次有了盈余
- It resulted in the first surpluses… 这催生了城市和文明
and gave birth to cities and civilizations. 为了农业生产
For their agriculture, 人类利用动物或植物的能量
humans harnessed the energy of animal species and plant life, 并从中受益
from which they at last extracted the profits.
- The memory of thousands of years scrabbling for food faded. 他们学会将谷类适应
They learned to adapt the grains that are the yeast of life… 不同的土壤和气候
to different soils and climates.
- They learned to increase the yield and multiply the number of varieties. 像地球上所有动物
Like every species on Earth, 人类每天的首要任务
the principal daily concern of all humans…
- is to feed themselves and their family.
- When the soil is less generous and water becomes scarce, 人类要为一点干燥土地
humans deploy prodigious efforts 石油令一部分人得享从未有过的舒适 270. With oil, some of us acquired unprecedented comforts.
- And in 50 years, in a single lifetime, 地球发生根本性的改变
the Earth has been more radically changed…
- than by all previous generations of humanity. 越来越快
Faster and faster.
- In the last 60 years, the Earth’s population has almost tripled, 珍贵而具革命性的能量“黑金”
the phenomenal revolutionary power of black gold. 借助它
With its help, 农夫变成了农业企业家
a country of farmers became a country of agricultural industrialists. 机器取代人力
Machines replaced men. 一升石油等于
A liter of oil generates as much energy…
- as 100 pairs of hands in 24 hours, 但在全球只有3%的农民使用拖拉机 to mark a few arid acres… 而拼命劳作
with the imprint of their labor. 人类以极大的耐性和专注去模塑土地 251. Humans shaped the land with the patience and devotion that the Earth demands,
- in an almost sacrificial ritual performed over and over.
- Agriculture is still the world’s most widespread occupation. 一半人类仍在耕种土地
Half of humankind tills the soil, 超过四分之三仍是手工操作
over three-quarters of them by hand.
- Agriculture is like a tradition handed down…
- from generation to generation in sweat, graft and toil,
- because for humanity it is a prerequisite of survival. 人类依赖人力日久
But after relying on muscle power for so long,
- humankind found a way to tap into the energy buried deep in the Earth. 这些火焰也来自植物
These flames are also from plants. 一束阳光
A pocket of sunlight. 纯粹的能量，太阳量
Pure energy— the energy of the sun
- captured over millions of years by millions of plants… 俘虏了超过数百万年
more than a hundred million years ago.
那是煤，是天然气 266. It’s coal. It’s gas. 最重要的是石油
- And above all, it’s oil.
这束阳光把人类从辛劳的耕种解放出来 268. And this pocket of sunlight freed humans from their toil on the land. 石油令人类解除了时间的束缚
- With oil began the era of humans who break free of the shackles of time. 超过二十亿人移居城市
and over two billion people have moved to the cities. 越来越快
Faster and faster.
- Shenzhen, in China, with its hundreds of skyscrapers and millions of inhabitants,
- was just a small fishing village barely 40 years ago. 越来越快
Faster and faster. 二十年来
In Shanghai, 3,000 towers and skyscrapers…
- have been built in 20 years. 另有数百座正在建设中
Hundreds more are under construction.
- Today, over half of the world’s seven billion inhabitants live in cities. 纽约，世界上第一个超级城市
New York. The world’s first megalopolis… 是人类无止境地
is the symbol of the exploitation of the energy…
- the Earth supplies to human genius.
- The manpower of millions of immigrants, 煤的能量
the energy of coal, 及无约束的石油力量
the unbridled power of oil. 电的出现发明了电梯
Electricity resulted in the invention of elevators,
- which in turn permitted the invention of skyscrapers.
- New York ranks as the 16th-largest economy in the world. 美国最先发现和开发利用
America was the first to discover, exploit and harness…
but worldwide only three percent of farmers have use of a tractor.
- Nonetheless, their output dominates the planet. 美国只剩下三百万农民
In the United States, only three million farmers are left.
他们出产的谷物可以养活二十亿人口 304. They produce enough grain to feed two billion people.
- But most of that grain is not used to feed people. 就像其他工业国
Here, and in all other industrialized nations,
- it’s transformed into livestock feed or biofuels.
- The pocket of sunshine’s energy… 赶走了令土地干旱的幽灵
chased away the specter of drought that stalked farmland. 所有泉水都用于农业
No spring escapes the demands of agriculture,
- which accounts for 70% of humanity’s water consumption. 大自然的一切都互相连系
In nature, everything is linked. 耕地的拓张和单一品种的种植
The expansion of cultivated land and single-crop farming… 增加了害虫的肆虐
encouraged the development of parasites.
- Pesticides, another gift of the petrochemical revolution, 把它们杀光
- Bad harvests and famine became a distant memory. 眼前最头痛是
The biggest headache now… 如何处理现代农业带来的残留
was what to do with the surpluses engendered by modern agriculture. 有毒的杀虫剂渗进空气
But toxic pesticides seeped into the air,
- soil, plants, animals, rivers and oceans.
- They penetrated the heart of cells… 赖以生存的细胞核心
similar to the mother cell that is shared by all forms of life.
- Are they harmful to the humans that they released from hunger? 这些穿着黄色保护衣物的农夫
These farmers, in their yellow protective suits, 可能有更好的主意
- manufacturing meat faster than the animal has become a daily routine.
- In these vast food lots, trampled by millions of cattle, 寸草不生
not a blade of grass grows. 一队队卡车从全国各地运来
A fleet of trucks from every corner of the country…
- brings in tons of grain, soy meal… 丰富蛋白质的饲料最终变成一吨吨的肉 352. and protein-rich granules that will 但我们拒绝相信
but we refuse to believe it.
- For many of us, the American dream is embodied by a legendary name:
- Los Angeles.
- In this city that stretches over100 kilometers,
- the number of cars is almost equal to the number of inhabitants.
- probably have a good idea.
新兴农业免除了对土壤和季节的依赖 327. The new agriculture abolished the dependence on soils and seasons. 肥料令小片土地 328. Fertilizers produced unprecedented results… 出产前所未见的丰富收成
- on plots of land thus far ignored. 适应了土地和气候的谷物
Crops adapted to soils and climates…
- gave way to the most productive varieties and the easiest to transport. 于是在上一世纪
And so, in the last century, 农民在过去数千年培育的
three-quarters of the varieties developed by farmers over thousands of years…
- have been wiped out.
- As far as the eye can
第一文库网see, fertilizer below, plastic on top. 西班牙的艾美利亚温室
The greenhouses of Almeria in Spain…
- are Europe’s vegetable garden. 大批形状整齐的蔬菜
A city of uniformly sized vegetables…
- waits every day for the hundreds of trucks…
- that will take them to the continent’s supermarkets. 国家越发展
The more a country develops, 国民对肉类的需求就越大
the more meat its inhabitants consume.
- How can growing worldwide demand be satisfied…
- without recourse to concentration camp-style cattle farms? 越来越快
Faster and faster.
- Like the life cycle of livestock which may never see a meadow,
become tons of meat.
- The result is that it takes 100 liters of water… 要一百公升水
to produce one kilogram of potatoes,
- 4,000 for one kilo of rice… 而一公斤牛肉要一万三千公升水 356. and 13,000 for one kilo of beef. 还不算在生产和运输过程被耗掉的石油 357. Not to mention the oil guzzled in the production process and transport. 我们的农业成了石油推动型
Our agriculture has become oil-powered.
- It feeds twice as many humans on Earth…
- but has replaced diversity with standardization.
- It has offered many of us comforts we could only dream of,
但却使我们的生活方式完全依赖石油 362. but it makes our way of life totally dependent on oil. 这是新的时间观念
- This is the new measure of time. 我们的时钟随着那
Our world’s clock now beats to the rhythm…
- of these indefatigable machines… 一起摆动
tapping into the pocket of sunlight. 它们的规律性让我们安心
Their regularity reassures us. 极小的间断都会引发混乱
The tiniest hiccup throws us into disarray.
- The whole planet is attentive to these metronomes…
- of our hopes and illusions. 同样的希望和幻想随着我们的需求
The same hopes and illusions that proliferate along with our needs,
- increasingly insatiable desires and profligacy.
- We know that the end of cheap oil is imminent,
Here, energy puts on a fantastic show every night.
- The days seem to be no more than the pale reflection of nights… 晚上的城市变成闪烁星空
that turn the city into a starry sky. 越来越快
Faster and faster.
距离不再以英哩度量而是多少分钟车程 383. Distances are no longer counted in miles but in minutes.
- The automobile shapes new suburbs where every home is a castle, 跟令人窒息的市中心保持安全距离
a safe distance from the asphyxiated city centers,
一排排整齐的房子拥挤在死胡同四周 386. and where neat rows of houses huddle round dead-end streets. 少数发达国家的模式
- The model of a lucky few countries…
- has become a universal dream, 已变成了普遍梦想
preached by televisions all over the world.
- Even here in Beijing, 这些模仿，抄袭和复制
it is cloned, copied and reproduced…
- in these formatted houses that have wiped pagodas off the map. 汽车成为舒适和进步的象征
The automobile has become the symbol of comfort and progress. 如果每个社会都跟随这个模式
If this model were followed by every society,
- the planet wouldn’t have 900 million vehicles, as it does today, 而是五十亿
but five billion. 越来越快
Faster and faster.
- The more the world develops, the greater its thirst for energy. 到处都是挖钻矿物的机器
Everywhere, machines dig, bore and rip from the Earth…
把盘古初开时埋在地下的星星挖出来 400. the pieces of stars buried in its depths since its creation: 矿物
- In the next 20 years, more ore will be extracted from the Earth… 比人类历史上的总数都要多
than in the whole of humanity’s history. 由于垄断
As a privilege of power, 80%开采所得财富
80% of this mineral wealth… 只由20%的人口分享
is consumed by 20% of the world’s population. 到本世纪末
Before the end of this century, 由于过份开采矿产，人类将会耗尽地球上的大部分资源
excessive mining will have exhausted nearly all the planet’s reserves.
- Faster and faster. 造船厂大量制造油轮
Shipyards churn out oil tankers, 货柜船，煤气运输船
container ships and gas tankers… 以应付世界性工业生产的需求
to cater for the demands of globalized industrial production. 大部分消费品要千里迢迢地
Most consumer goods travel thousands of kilometers… 从产地运到消费地
from the country of production to the country of consumption. 自1950年至今，国际贸易总量
Since 1950, the volume of international trade… 增长了二十倍
has increased 20 times over. 90%的贸易在海上进行
Ninety percent of trade goes by sea.
- 500 million containers are transported every year, 被运往主要的消费地区
headed for the world’s major hubs of consumption, 例如迪拜
such as Dubai.
- Dubai is one of the biggest construction sites in the world 一个将不可能变成可能的国家
a country where the impossible becomes possible.
- Building artificial islands in the sea, for example.
- Dubai has few natural resources, 但依靠石油赚的钱，它可以输入数百万吨的原料
but with the money from oil, it can bring millions of tons of material and people…
- from all over the world.
它可以建造大厦丛林，一个比一个高 427. It can build forests of skyscrapers, each one taller than the last, 甚至在沙漠中建滑雪道
- or even a ski slope in the middle of the desert.
- Dubai has no farmland, but it can import food. 迪拜没有水源
Dubai has no water, 但可以花费大量能源
but it can afford to expend immense amounts of energy…
淡化海水并修建世界上最高的摩天大楼 432. to desalinate seawater and build the highest skyscrapers in the world. 迪拜阳光充沛但没有太阳能电池板
- Dubai has endless sun but no solar panels.
- It is the city of more is more, 在这里最不着边的梦想也能变成现实 435. where the wildest dreams become reality.
- Dubai is a sort of culmination of the Western model,
- with its 800-meter high totem to total modernity… 一直让世界惊奇
that never fails to amaze the world. 过分吗？也许吧
Excessive? Perhaps. 迪拜似乎已作出选择
Dubai appears to have made its choice.
- It is like the new beacon for all the world’s money.
- Nothing seems further removed from nature than Dubai,
但没有任何事物比迪拜更依赖大自然 443. although nothing depends on nature more than Dubai.
- The city merely follows the model of wealthy nations.
我们还不明白我们正在耗尽自然资源 445. We haven’t understood that we’re depleting what nature provides. 对海洋世界我们了解什么？
- What do we know of the marine world, of which we see only the surface, 它覆盖了地球四分之三的面积
and which covers three-quarters of the planet?
- The ocean depths remain a secret. 海洋中存在的数千物种对我们来说也是一个谜
They contain thousands of species whose existence remains a mystery to us.
自1950年起，渔业捕获量增加了5倍 450. Since 1950, fishing catches have increased fivefold,
- from 18 to 100 million metric tons a year.
- Thousands of factory ships are emptying the oceans. 四分之三的渔场已枯竭
Three-quarters of fishing grounds are exhausted, 废弃或是频临废弃
depleted or in danger of being so. 大型鱼类已所剩无几
Most large fish have been fished out of existence, 因为没有时间繁殖
since they have no time to reproduce.
- We are destroying the cycle of a life that was given to us.
在海岸线上，到处都是资源耗尽的迹象 458. On the coastlines, signs of the exhaustion of stocks abound.
- First sign: Colonies of sea mammals are getting smaller.
- Made vulnerable by urbanization of the coasts and pollution,
现在，它们又要面对一个新的威胁：饥荒 461. they now face a new threat: famine.
它们完全竞争不过工业化的捕鱼船队 462. In their unequal battle against industrial fishing fleets,
- they can’t find enough fish to feed their young. 第二幕：
- Seabirds must fly ever greater distances to find food.
- At the current rate, all fish stocks are threatened with exhaustion.
- In Dakar, traditional net fishing boomed in the years of plenty, 但在今天，鱼类正在减少
but today, fish stocks are dwindling.
- Fish is the staple diet of one in five humans.
- Can we envision the inconceivable? 废弃的渔船
Abandoned boats, 无鱼的海洋？
seas devoid of fish?
- We have forgotten that resources are scarce.
- 500 million humans live in the world’s desert lands,
比欧洲人口还要多 475. more than the combined population of Europe. 他们懂得水的价值
- They know the value of water. 他们也爱惜涓滴
They know how to use it sparingly. 在这里，他们依赖水井中的原生地层水 478. Here, they depend on wells replenished by fossil water,
它是由二万五千年前降于沙漠的雨水 479. which accumulated underground in the days when it rained on these 就有一条每年数月不能流进大海
- no longer flows into the sea for several months of the year. 死海的名字来自它极高的盐度
The Dead Sea derives its name from its incredibly high salinity… 没有生命可以生存
that makes all life impossible. 缺少了约旦河水
Deprived of the Jordan’s water, 506. Deprived of the Jordan’s water, 死海的海平面每年减少一米多
its level goes down by over one 每人每天用水达一千公升
800 to 1,000 liters of water…
are consumed per person per day. 拉斯维加斯建在沙漠中
Las Vegas was built out of the desert.
- Millions of people live there. 每月有成千上万游客
Thousands more arrive every month.
- The inhabitants of Las Vegas are deserts, 聚集而成
25,000 years ago.
- Fossil water also enables crops to be grown in the desert… 为当地人口提供食粮
to provide food for local populations. 圆形的农田
The fields’ circular shape… 由围绕中心的管道进行灌溉
derives from the pipes that irrigate them around a central pivot. 但代价沉重的
But there is a heavy price to pay. 原生地层水不可再生
Fossil water is a nonrenewable resource.
在沙地阿拉伯在沙漠作现代耕种的梦已褪 487. In Saudi Arabia, the dream of industrial farming in the desert has faded.
- As if on a parchment map, 光点显示了被放弃的计划
the light spots on this patchwork show abandoned plots. 灌溉设备仍在
The irrigation equipment is still there.
- The energy to pump water also. 但原生地层水已严重枯竭
But the fossil water reserves are severely depleted.
- Israel turned the desert into arable land.
- Even though these hothouses are now irrigated drop by drop,
- water consumption continues to increase along with exports. 奔流的约旦河已成为涓滴细流
The once mighty river Jordan is now just a trickle.
- Its water has flown to supermarkets all over the world… 世界各大超市
in crates of fruit and vegetables. 约旦河的命运并不少见
The Jordan’s fate is not unique. 500. The Jordan’s fate is not unique. 地球上每十条大河
Across the planet, one major river in 10…
meter per year. 盐度一直在增加
- Its salinity is increasing. 高温蒸发了海水
Evaporation, due to the heat, 造成了这些漂亮的盐岛
produces these fine islands of salt evaporites- 美丽却不毛
beautiful but sterile.
- In Rajasthan, India, Udaipur is a miracle of water.
- The city was made possible by a system of dams and channels… 构成的人工湖而存在
that created an artificial lake. 对它的建设者来说，水是如此珍贵
For its architects, was water so precious…
- that they dedicated a palace to it? 下一世纪，印度可能是最受
India risks being the country that suffers most…
- from the lack of water in the coming century.
- Massive irrigation has fed the growing population,
过去五十年他们挖了二千一百万口井 520. and in the last 50 years, 21 million wells have been dug.
- The victory over famine has a downside, however.
在印度为了找到水源，水井越钻越深 522. In many parts of the country, the drill has to sink ever deeper to hit water. 在印度西部，
- In western India, 30%的水井已被遗弃
30% of wells have been abandoned. 地下含水层开始干涸
The underground aquifers are drying out.
巨大的蓄水池可以收集雨水补充含水层 526. Vast reservoirs will catch the monsoon rains to replenish the aquifers.
- In dry season, women from local villages dig them with their bare hands. 远在数千公里之外
Thousands of kilometers away,
among the biggest consumers of water in the world.
- Palm Springs is another desert city…
- with tropical vegetation and lush golf courses.
- How long can this mirage continue to prosper?
- The Earth cannot keep up. 为这些城市提供水源的科罗拉多河
The Colorado River, which brings water to these cities,
- is one of those rivers that no longer reaches the sea. 更令人担忧的是
Even more alarmingly, 它的源头水流正在逐渐减小
its flow is diminishing at source. 流域中的蓄水湖泊水位也在骤降
Water levels in the catchment lakes along its course…
- Lake Powell took 17 years to reach high-water mark.
- Its level is now half of that.
2025年前，水荒问题会影响二十亿人 547. Water shortages could affect nearly two billion people… 548. before 2025.
- Yet water is still abundant in unspoiled regions of the planet. 湿地
这些湿地对地球上的生命来说至关重要 551. These wetlands are crucial to all life on Earth.
- They represent six percent of the planet.
- Marshes are sponges that regulate the flow of water. 雨季时吸水，
They absorb it in the wet season… 旱季时放水
and release it in the dry season. 水从高山上流下
The water runs off the mountain peaks,
- carrying with it the seeds of the regions it flows through.
- This process gives birth to unique landscapes,
- where the diversity of species is unequaled in its richness.
- Under the calm water lies a veritable factory…
- where this ultimately linked richness and diversity… 过滤水份并消除所有污染
patiently filters the water and digests all the pollution. 沼泽是水的再生和净化 563. Marshes are indispensable environments… 必不可少的环境 564. for the regeneration and purification of water. 这些湿地总会被认为
These wetlands were always seen as unhealthy expanses, 不适合人类居住
unfit for human habitation. 人类为了开发更多土地
In our race to conquer more land, 往往把沼泽变成牧场
we have reclaimed them as pasture for our livestock, 耕地或用于建屋
or as land for agriculture or building.
- In the last century, half of the world’s marshes were drained.
我们竟不知它的富饶和所担当的角色 571. We know neither their richness nor their role.
- All living matter is linked. 水，空气，土，树木
Water, air, soil, trees. 世界的魔法就在我们眼前
The world’s magic is right in front of our eyes.
树木呼吸地下水以薄雾形态送到大气中 575. Trees breathe groundwater into the atmosphere as light mist.
- They form a canopy that alleviates the impact of heavy rains… 并保护泥土免于流失
and protects the soil from erosion. 森林为生命提供潮湿环境
The forests provide the humidity that is necessary for life. 它们也是雨水的来源
They are the mother and father of rain.
- The forests store carbon. 它们含碳的份量比大气都多
They contain more than all the Earth’s atmosphere. 是我们赖以生存的
They are the cornerstone of the climatic balance…
- on which we all depend.
- Trees provide a habitat for three-quarters of the planet’s biodiversity
- that is to say, of all life on Earth. 每年我们都能发现一些未知的物种
Every year, we discover new species we had no idea existed 昆虫、鸟类和哺乳动物
insects, birds, mammals. 森林可以提供医治我们的药物
These forests provide the remedies that cure us.
- The substances secreted by these plants…
- can be recognized by our bodies. 我们的细胞说同一语言
Our cells talk the same language. 我们是同一家族
We are of the same family. 红树林是海岸边的森林
Mangroves are forests that step out onto the sea.
像珊瑚礁一样，它们是海洋的托儿所 594. Like coral reefs, they are a nursery for the oceans.
它们的根系缠绕着构成了鱼儿的庇护所 595. Their roots entwine and form a shelter for the fish… 并哺育软体动物
- and mollusks that come to breed. 红树林保护海岸免于飓风
Mangroves protect the coasts from hurricanes,
- tidal waves and erosion by the sea. 所有人类都要依赖它们
Whole peoples depend on them. 然而，近半个世纪它们已经减少了
Yet, they were reduced by half during the 20th century. 这种灾难的原因之一
One of the reasons for the ongoing disaster…
- is these shrimp farms installed on the mangroves’ rich waters. 充氧机替代了红树林
Ventilators aerate pools full of antibiotics…
- to prevent the asphyxiation of the shrimps,
- not that of the mangroves. 自1960年代始，森林砍伐越来越快 606. Since the 1960s, deforestation has constantly gathered pace.
- Every year, 13 million hectares of tropical forest
- an area the size of Illinois- 消失在烟雾中或是成为木材
disappear in smoke and as lumber.
- The world’s largest rain forest, the Amazon,
- has already been reduced by 20%. 森林让路给牛场和大豆田
The forest gives way to cattle ranches or soybean farms. 95％的大豆
Ninety-five percent of these soybeans…
- are used to feed livestock and poultry in Europe and Asia. 就这样，森林变成了肉食
And so, a forest is turned into meat.
- When they burn, forests and their soils…
- release huge quantities of carbon, 占全球释放的温室气体的20%
accounting for 20% of the greenhouse gases emitted across the globe.
森林砍伐是全球变暖的主要原因之一 619. Deforestation is one of the principal causes of global warming. 成千的物种永远消失了
- Thousands of species disappear forever.
- With them, one of the links in a long chain of evolution snaps. 它们的生命物质信息
The intelligence of the living matter from which they came… 也永远失落了
is lost forever.
- Barely 20 years ago, Borneo, the fourth-largest island in the world, 布满了原始森林
was covered by a vast primary forest.
- At the current rate of deforestation,
- it will have totally disappeared within 10 years.
- Living matter bonds water, air, earth and the sun.
婆罗洲曾是全球最大生物品种的摇篮 629. In Borneo, this bond has been broken…
- in what was one of the Earth’s greatest reservoirs of biodiversity. 在婆罗洲生产全世界销量最高的
This catastrophe was provoked by the decision… 棕榈油
to produce palm oil,
- the most consumed oil in the world, on Borneo.
棕榈油不仅满足我们增长中的食品需求 634. Palm oil not only caters to our growing demand for food,
- but also cosmetics, detergents and, increasingly, alternative fuels.
森林的多样性被单一品种的棕榈取代 636. The forest diversity was replaced by a single species- the oil palm.
- Monoculture is easy, productive and rapid.
- For local people, it provides 曾经是“加勒比海明珠”
Once the pearl of the Caribbean, 如今却要依赖外国援助才能养活人民 660. Haiti can no longer feed its population without foreign aid. 海地山坡上的树林只剩下2％
On the hills of Haiti, only two percent of the forests are left. 裸露的土壤无法吸收雨水
Stripped bare, the soil no longer absorbs the rainwater. 没有植物和根茎的加固
With no vegetation and no roots to reinforce them, 当地人无法再出海捕鱼
The Rapa Nui could no longer go fishing.
- There were no trees to build canoes.
但复活岛人曾建立太平洋最耀眼的文明 686. And yet the Rapa Nui formed one of the most brilliant civilizations in the Pacific.
- Innovative farmers, exceptional navigators,
- It is an agricultural industry. 另一大量森林砍伐的例子是桉树
Another example of massive deforestation is the eucalyptus. 它用于制作木浆
Eucalyptus is used to make paper pulp.
- Plantations are growing, as demand for paper has increased fivefold in 50 years.
- Monocultures of trees are gaining ground all over the world. 但单一树种不是森林
But a monoculture is not a forest. 从定义看，差别不大
By definition, there is little diversity.
- One forest does not replace another forest. 在这些桉树下
At the foot of these eucalyptus trees,
寸草不生，因其掉下来的树叶覆盖地面 648. nothing grows, because their leaves form a bed…
- that is toxic for most other plants. 它们生长快速，但耗水也多
They grow quickly, but exhaust water reserves.
- Soybeans, palm oil, eucalyptus trees-
- Deforestation destroys the essential to produce the superfluous.
但在其它地方森林砍伐是生存的最后手段 653. But elsewhere, deforestation is a last resort to survive. 超过二十亿人
- Over two billion people- 即世界三分一人口
almost a third of the world’s population 仍依赖炭
still depend on charcoal. 海地，世界上最穷的国家之一
In Haiti, one of the world’s poorest countries,
- charcoal is one of the population’s main consumables. 土壤被雨冲走
nothing holds the soils back. 雨水把它们从山坡上冲进大海
The rainwater washes them down the hillsides as far as the sea. 雨水侵蚀令土壤贫瘠
Erosion impoverishes the quality of the soils, 不宜耕种
reducing their suitability for agriculture.
在马达加斯加雨水侵蚀景像非常壮观 668. In some parts of Madagascar, the erosion is spectacular. 山坡布满数百米宽的深坑
- Whole hillsides bear deep gashes hundreds of meters wide.
- Thin and fragile, soil is made by living matter.
- With erosion, the fine layer of humus,
- which took thousands of years to form, disappears. 复活节岛的故事
Here’s one theory of the story of the Rapa Nui,
- the inhabitants of Easter Island, 或许值得我们反思
that could perhaps give us pause for thought.
- Living on the most isolated island in the world, 岛上居民把资源
the Rapa Nui exploited their resources… 开发殆尽
until there was nothing left. 他们的文明已不存在
Their civilization did not survive. 这里曾矗立世上最高的棕榈树
On these lands stood the highest palm trees in the world. 如今荡然无存
They have disappeared. 当地人把树变木材
The Rapa Nui chopped them all down for lumber.
- They then had to face widespread soil erosion.
they were caught in a vise of overpopulation and dwindling resources. 结果酿成社会动荡，叛乱和饥荒
They experienced social unrest, revolts and famine. 巨变中很少人幸存
Many did not survive the cataclysm.
- The real mystery of Easter Island is not how its strange statues got there. 而是当地人为何不及时作出反应
We know now.It’s why the Rapa Nui didn’t react in time. 这只是众多说法中的一个
It’s only one of a number of theories,
- but it has particular relevance to us today.
自1950以来，世界人口增长了接近一倍 695. Since 1950, the world’s population has almost tripled.
- And since 1950, we have more fundamentally altered our island, the Earth,
- than in all of our 200,000-year history.
- Nigeria is the biggest oil exporter in Africa,
- and yet 70% of the population lives under the poverty line.
- The wealth is there, but the country’s inhabitants don’t have access to it.
- The same is true all over the globe. 世上一半穷人住在资源丰富的国家
Half the world’s poor live in resource-rich countries.
我们的发展模式并未实现当初的承诺 703. Our mode of development has not fulfilled its promises. 五十年来，贫富悬殊
- In 50 years, the gap between rich and poor… 从未如此严重
has grown wider than ever. 今天，全球一半财富
Today, half the world’s wealth… 掌握在占人口比例2％的富豪手上
is in the hands of the richest two percent of the population.
这种不对称还能维持吗？ 708. Can such disparities be maintained?
- They’re the cause of population movements…
- whose scale we have yet to fully realize.
拉哥斯的人口在1960年只有七十万 711. The city of Lagos had a population 我们仍可从加拿大的含油沙中提炼
- We can still extract oil from the tar sands of Canada.
- The biggest trucks in the world move thousands of tons of sand. 加热沙子和从中分离沥青的过程
The process of heating and separating bitumen… 需要数百万立方米的水
from the sand requires millions of 经由北极连接美欧亚的
The Northwest Passage that connects America, Europe and Asia… 西北航道打开了
via the pole is opening up. 北极的冰冠开始融化
The Arctic ice cap is melting. 在全球变暖的影响下
Under the effect of global warming,
of 700,000 in 1960.
- That will rise to 16 million by 2025. 拉哥斯是成长最快的特大城市之一
Lagos is one of the fastest-growing megalopolises in the world.
- The new arrivals are mostly farmers forced off the land… 或资源减少
for economic or demographic reasons,
- or because of diminishing resources.
- This is a radically new type of urban growth,
- driven by the urge to survive rather than to prosper. 每周全球共有一百多万人
Every week, over a million people…
- swell the populations of the world’s cities.
- One human being in six now lives in a precarious,
- unhealthy, overpopulated environment,
- without access to daily necessities… 比如水、卫生设施和电力
such as water, sanitation or electricity. 饥荒再次蔓延
Hunger is spreading once more. 影响将近十亿人口
It affects nearly one billion people. 地球上到处都是拾荒为生的人
All over the planet, the poorest scrabble to survive on scraps,
但我们却继续挖钻并非生活必需的资源 728. while we continue to dig for resources that we can no longer live without.
- We look farther and farther afield, 未被破坏
in previously unspoilt territory… 但更难开发的地区
and in regions that are increasingly difficult to exploit.
- We’re not changing our model. 石油可能耗尽？
Oil might run out?
cubic meters of water. 和大量的能量
- Colossal amounts of energy are needed.
- The pollution is catastrophic. 最迫切的显然是
The most urgent priority, apparently,
- is to pick every pocket of sunlight. 我们的油轮越来越大
Our oil tankers are getting bigger and bigger.
- Our energy requirements are constantly increasing. 我们的需求像无底的炉子
We try to power growth like a bottomless oven… 需要越来越多的燃料
that demands more and more fuel. 说来说去仍是碳
It’s all about carbon. 数十年中令大气层变成火炉
In a few decades, the carbon that made our atmosphere a furnace, 数百万年来大自然捕获
and that nature captured over millions of years, 生命赖以生存的碳
allowing life to develop, 将被大量释出
will have largely been pumped back out.
- The atmosphere is heating up. 数年前在这找到一艘船是不可思议的
It would have been inconceivable for a boat to be here just a few years ago.
- Transport, industry, deforestation, agriculture-
- Our activities release gigantic quantities of carbon dioxide. 不知不觉中那些分子
Without realizing it, molecule by molecule,
- we have upset the Earth’s climatic balance.
全部目光都集中于南北两极 757. All eyes are on the poles, 这里地球暖化的影响最明显
- where the effects of global warming are most visible. 一切来得太快
It’s happening fast very fast.
the ice cap has lost 40% of its thickness in 40 years.
- Its surface area in the summer shrinks year by year. 可能2030年会全部消失
It could disappear before 2030. 有些则预言2015年
Some predictions suggest 2015.
- Soon these waters will be free of ice several summer months a year.
- The sunbeams that the ice sheet previously reflected back… 现在直照深海并加热海水
now penetrate the dark water, heating it up.
- The warming process gathers pace.
- This ice contains the records of our planet.
- The concentration of carbon dioxide…
- hasn’t been so high for several hundred thousand years. 人类从未生活在这种大气下
Humanity has never lived in an atmosphere like this.
- Is excessive exploitation of our resources threatening the lives of every species?
- Climate change accentuates the threat.
- By 2050, a quarter of the Earth’s species…
- could be threatened with extinction. 在南北两极，大自然的平衡已瓦解
In these polar regions, the balance of nature has already been disrupted. 格陵兰岛的沿海，冰山越来越多
Off the coast of Greenland, there are more and more icebergs. 在北极圈，三十年来
Around the North Pole, the ice cap has lost…
- 30% of its surface area in 30 years. 但当格陵兰岛迅速变暖
But as Greenland rapidly becomes warmer,
一整个大陆的淡水 785. the freshwater continent… 注入海中咸水
of a whole
- flows into the salt water of the oceans.
格陵兰岛的冰储存地球上20%的淡水 787. Greenland’s ice contains 20% of the freshwater of the whole planet. 如果溶化了，海平面会升高七米
- If it melts, sea levels will rise by nearly seven meters. 但这里没有工业
But there is no industry here. 格陵兰岛的大冰原受地球其它地方
Greenland’s ice sheet suffers from 例如，珊瑚礁对海水温度的
Coral reefs, for example, are extremely sensitive… 轻微变化非常敏感
to the slightest change in water temperature. 三成已消失
Thirty percent have disappeared. 它们是生物链中重要一环
They are an essential link in the chain of species.
- In the atmosphere, the major wind streams are changing direction. 雨水循环被改变
- eternal snows and glaciers are receding.
- Yet these glaciers play an essential role in the water cycle. 它们冷凝雨季的水变成冰
They trap the water from the monsoons as ice…
- and release it in the summer when the snow melts.
喜马拉雅山冰川是亚洲所有大河的源头 842. The glaciers of the Himalayas are the source of all the great Asian rivers- greenhouse gases… 排放的温室气体所影响
- emitted elsewhere on Earth. 我们的生态系统并无疆界
Our ecosystem doesn’t have borders.
- Wherever we are, our actions have repercussions on the whole Earth. 地球的大气层是不可分割的整体
The atmosphere of our planet is an indivisible whole. 是我们共享的资产
It is an asset we share.
- On Greenland’s surface, lakes are appearing on the landscape. 冰冠融化的速度
The ice cap has begun to melt at a speed…
连最悲观的科学家十年前也预计不到 798. that even the most pessimistic scientists did not envision 10 years ago. 越来越多源自冰川的河流
- More and more of these glacier-fed rivers…
- are merging together and burrowing through the surface. 人们以为河水会在冰的深处结冰
It was thought the water would freeze in the depths of the ice. 但恰恰相反，它在冰下流过
On the contrary, it flows under the ice,
- carrying the ice sheet into the sea, 并碎裂成冰山
where it breaks into icebergs. 当格陵兰的冰原淡水
As the freshwater of Greenland’s ice sheet…
- gradually seeps into the salt water of the oceans,
- low-lying lands around the globe are threatened. 海平面正在上升
Sea levels are rising. 单是上世纪因海水暖化膨胀
Water expanding as it gets warmer caused,
- in the 20th century alone, a rise of 20 centimeters. 一切变得不稳定
Everything becomes unstable. 817. Rain cycles are altered. 气候地理也被更改
The geography of climates is modified.
住在像马尔代夫这样的低洼岛屿的居民 819. The inhabitants of low-lying islands here in the Maldives, 处于最前沿
- for example, are on the front line. 他们越来越感到忧虑
They are increasingly concerned. 有些开始寻找新的，更适宜居住的土地 822. Some are already looking for new, more hospitable lands. 如果海水上升越来越快
If sea levels continue to rise faster and faster,
- what will major cities like Tokyo, 会怎样做？
the world’s most populous city, do? 每一年，科学家的预测越来越令人担忧 826. Every year, scientists’ predictions become more and more alarming. 全球70%的人口住在沿海平原
Seventy percent of the world’s population lives on coastal plains.
- Eleven of the 15 biggest cities stand on a coastline or river estuary. 如果海水上升，咸水会侵入地下水
As the seas rise, salt will invade the water table,
- depriving inhabitants of drinking water.
人口迁徙已无可避免 831. Migratory phenomena are inevitable.
- The only uncertainty concerns their scale.
- In Africa, Mount Kilimanjaro is unrecognizable.
- Eighty percent of its glaciers have disappeared.
- In summer, the rivers no longer flow.
- Local peoples are affected by the lack of water.
- Even on the world’s highest peaks, in the heart of the Himalayas,
- the Indus, Ganges, Mekong, Yangtze Kiang.
- Two billion people depend on them for drinking water… 比如孟加拉国人
and to irrigate their crops, as in Bangladesh.
- On the delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra,
- Bangladesh is directly affected by the phenomena… 和海面上升的影响
occurring in the Himalayas and at sea level.
- This is one of the most populous and poorest countries in the world. 已经因全球变暖遭受打击
It is already hit by global warming. 越来越严重的河水泛滥和飓风的蹂躏 851. The combined impact of increasingly dramatic floods and hurricanes…
- could make a third of its landmass disappear.
- When populations are subjected to these devastating phenomena, 最终只能迁移
they eventually move away. 富裕国家也不能幸免
Wealthy countries will not be spared.
- Droughts are occurring all over the planet.
- In Australia, half of farmland is already affected.
- We are in the process of compromising the climatic balance… 的气候平衡作出妥协
that has allowed us to develop over12,000 years.
- More and more wildfires encroach on major cities.
- In turn, they exacerbate global warming.
- As the trees burn, they release carbon dioxide.
- The system that controls our climate has been severely disrupted. 它所依赖的环境已被破坏
The elements on which it relies have been disrupted.
- The clock of climate change is ticking in these magnificent landscapes. 在西伯利亚等严寒地区
Here in Siberia and elsewhere across the globe,
- it is so cold that the ground is 如果我们拒绝
if we refuse to be called to account…
- for everything we alone have done? 20%的世界人口消耗了80%的资源
20% of the world’s population consumes 80% of its resources.
The world spends 12 times more on military expenditures than on aid to developing countries.
5000 people a day die because of dirty drinking water.
- will be left by the wayside tomorrow?
- Must we always build walls… 来破坏人类团结
to break the chain of human solidarity,
- separate peoples and protect the happiness of some from the misery of others?
- It’s too late to be a pessimist. 我知道一个人就可以推倒所有的墙
I know that a single human can constantly frozen. 称为永久冻土带
It’s known as permafrost.
- Under its surface lies a climatic time bomb: methane,
- a greenhouse gas 20 times more powerful than carbon dioxide. 如果永久冻土融化，释出的甲烷
If the permafrost melts, the methane released…
- would cause the greenhouse effect to race out of control, 产生无法预料的后果
with consequences no one can predict.
- We would literally be in unknown territory.
- Humanity has no more than 10 years to reverse the trend… 以免人类闯入这未知地带
and avoid crossing into this territory
- life on Earth as we have never known it.
- We have created phenomena we cannot control.
- Since our origins, water, air and forms of life are intimately linked. 但近年来，这些连结已经遭到破坏
But recently, we have broken those links.
- Let’s face the facts. 我们要信自已的知识
We must believe what we know. 我们刚才看到的一切是人类行为的反映 883. All that we have just seen is a reflection of human behavior. 我们按自已的想象改变了地球
We have shaped the Earth in our image.
- We have very little time to change. 这个世纪怎能肩负九十亿人的重担？ 886. How can this century carry the burden of nine billion human beings… 1 billion people have no access to safe drinking water.
Nearly 1 billion people are going hungry. 全球粮食贸易量的50%用于饲养或制造生物燃料
Over 50% of grain traded around the world is used for animal feed or biofuels. 40%可耕农田遭到长期破坏
40% arable land has suffered long-term damage.
Every year, 13 millions hectares of forest disappear.
One mammal in 4,one bird in 8,one amphibian in 3 are threatened with extinction.
Species are dying out at a rhythm 1000 times faster than the natural rate.
Three quarter of fishing grounds are exhausted , depleted or in dangerous decline.
The average temperature of the last 15 years have been the highest ever recorded
The ice cap is 40% thinner than 40 year ago.
There may be at least 200 million climate refugees by 2050. 我们的行为代价昂贵
- The cost of our actions is high. 其他没有积极参与的也会付出代价
Others pay the price without having been actively involved. 我见过在沙漠上绵延的难民营
I have seen refugee camps as big as cities,
- sprawling in the desert. 明天会有多少男女老幼
How many men, women and children…
knock down every wall. 要悲观已经太迟
- It’s too late to be a pessimist. 全世界，每五个小孩有四个在上学
Worldwide, four children out of five attend school.
- Never has learning been given to so many human beings.
- Everyone, from richest to poorest, can make a contribution.
- Lesotho, one of the world’s poorest countries,
他们投放在国民教育经费上比例最高 905. is proportionally the one that invests most in its people’s education. 卡塔尔是全球最富的国家之一
- Qatar, one of the world’s richest states, 他们引进最优秀的大学
has opened its doors to the best universities.
- Culture, education, research and innovation are inexhaustible resources. 面对悲惨和痛苦
In the face of misery and suffering,
- millions of N.G.O.’s prove that solidarity between peoples… 比各国的自私自利更强大
is stronger than the selfishness of nations.
- In Bangladesh, a man thought the unthinkable…
- and founded a bank that lends only to the poor.
三十年间，全球有一亿五千万人的生活 914. In barely 30 years, it has changed the lives… 得到改善
- of 150 million people around the world.
- Antarctica is a continent with immense natural resources… 它们不属于任何国家
that no country can claim for itself, 其自然储备只作为和平和科学用途
a natural reserve devoted to peace and science.
- A treaty signed by 49 states has made it a treasure shared by all humanity.
- It’s too late to be a pessimist.
- Governments have acted to protect nearly two percent of the world’s territorial waters.
- It’s not much, but it’s two times 每公顷只能砍一棵树
not more than one tree every hectare.
- Its forests are one of the country’s most important economic resources, 但它们现在有足够时间再生
but they have the time to regenerate.
现在已有保证可持续的森林管理计划 944. Programs exist that guarantee sustainable forest management. 但必须强制执行
- They must become mandatory. 决定把再生能源发展
and other nations have made the development… 作为最优先项目
of renewable energy sources a top priority.
- I know that 80% of the energy we consume… 来自化石能源
comes from fossil energy sources.
- Every week, two new coal-fired generating plants are built in China more than 10 years ago.
- The first natural parks were created just over a century ago. 占大陆面积的13％
They cover over13% of the continents.
- They create spaces where human activity is in step…
- with the preservation of species, soils and landscapes.
- This harmony between humans and nature can become the rule, 而不再是例外
no longer the exception.
- In the United States, New York has realized that nature does for us. 这些森林和湖泊为城市提供饮用水
These forests and lakes supply all the drinking water the city needs. 在南朝鲜，森林遭到战争破坏
In South Korea, the forests have been devastated by war. 归功于全国性的造林计划
Thanks to a national reforestation program,
- they once more cover 65% of the country.
- More than 75% of paper is recycled.
- Costa Rica has made a choice between military spending and the conservation of its lands. 这个国家已经没有军队
The country no longer has an army.
它宁愿把资源投放到教育，生态旅游 937. It prefers to devote its resources to education, ecotourism… 和保护原始森林方面
- and the protection of its primary forest.
- Gabon is one of the world’s leading producers of wood. 它强制执行选择性砍伐
It enforces selective logging 无论消费者或生产者
For consumers and producers, 都必须争取公平
justice is an opportunity to be seized.
- When trade is fair, when both buyer and seller benefit,
- everybody can prosper and earn a decent living.
- How can there be justice and equity…
- between people whose only tools are their hands…
- and those who harvest their crops with a machine and state subsidies? 让我们做负责任的消费者
Let’s be responsible consumers. 想想我们买什么？
Think about what we buy. 要悲观已经太迟
It’s too late to be a pessimist. 我见到过人力所及的农业
I have seen agriculture on a human scale.
- It can feed the whole planet if meat production doesn’t take the food out of people’s mouths.
- I have seen fishermen who take care what they catch… 并关心海洋宝藏
and care for the riches of the ocean.
- I have seen houses producing their own energy.
- 5,000 people live in the world’s first ever eco-friendly district, 它位于德国弗赖堡
in Freiburg, Germany. 许多城市成为合作伙伴
Other cities partner the project. 孟买将是第一千个
Mumbai is the thousandth to join them.
新西兰，冰岛，奥地利，瑞典等国政府 965. The governments of New Zealand, Iceland, Austria, Sweden…
- But I have also seen, in Denmark, 火力发电厂的原型
a prototype of a coal-fired plant… 它把释放的碳送到地底而不是送到天空 973. that releases its carbon into the soil rather than the air.
- A solution for the future? Nobody knows yet.
- I have seen, in Iceland, 利用地热资源的发电厂
an electricity plant powered by the Earth’s heat
- I have seen a sea snake lying on the swell…
- to absorb the energy of the waves and produce electricity.
- I have seen wind farms off the coast of Denmark…
- that produce 20% of the country’s electricity.
- The U.S.A., China, India, Germany and Spain… 是再生能源的最大投资者
are the biggest investors in renewable energy.
他们已经提供了二百五十万工作岗位 983. They have already created over two and a half million jobs. 地球上那里会没有风？
- Where on Earth doesn’t the wind blow?
- I have seen desert expanses baking in the sun.
- Everything on Earth is linked, 而地球又跟它的能量源头.太阳有关系 987. and the Earth is linked to the sun, its original energy source.
人类可否像植物一样捕捉太阳的能量？ 988. Can humans not imitate plants and capture its energy?
- In one hour, the sun gives the Earth…
- the same amount of energy as that consumed by all humanity in one year.
- As long as the Earth exists, the sun’s energy will be inexhaustible.
我们要做的是停钻地球把目光移到天空 992. All we have to do is stop drilling the Earth and start looking to the sky. 我们要学会栽培太阳
- All we have to do is learn to cultivate the sun.
这些实验只是例子，但表明了新的认知 994. All these experiments are only examples, but they testify to a new awareness.
- They lay down markers for a new human adventure…
- based on moderation, intelligence and sharing.
- It’s time to come together.
- What’s important is not what’s gone, but what remains.
- We still have half the world’s forests,
- thousands of rivers, lakes and glaciers…
- and thousands of thriving species. 我们知道有什么解决方法
We know that the solutions are there today.
We all have the power to change. 那我们还在等什么呢？
So what are we waiting for?